The Brussels II bis Regulation binds courts in countries of the European Union to a separate and additional set of laws governing Hague return cases. Brussels II bis does not replace the 1980 Convention in EU countries, but it provides for additional rules applicable to Hague cases. With the exception of Denmark, the Regulation is effective between all EU member states. The Regulation entered into force on August 1, 2004, and became applicable March 1, 2005. For a commentary concerning the impact of the Regulation on expeditious handling, objections of the child, and “grave risk” defenses, see The Impact of the Brussels II Regulation on Hague Convention Proceedings in the European Union, under Articles and Commentary.
This document is part of The 1980 Hague Convention on International Child Abduction: A Resource for Judges, a Special Topic Webpage.