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International Law & Litigation

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March 14, 2018
James D. Garbolino

Soto v. Contreras, 880 F.3d 706 (5th Cir. 2018)

Domestic Violence | Grave Risk

In this case, the Fifth Circuit evaluated whether the district court’s finding that there was a lack of “objective evidence” to support abuse allegations impermissibly increased mother’s burden to prove a grave risk, and whether the existence of spousal abuse requires a finding of grave risk to a child.

Facts

March 14, 2018
James D. Garbolino

Taglieri v. Monasky, 876 F.3d 868 (6th Cir. 2017)

Habitual Residence | Infants | Custody Rights | Grave Risk and Domestic Violence

This case dealt with the question of what standard to apply when determining the habitual residence of an infant who has lived in only one location prior to wrongful removal.

March 9, 2018
James D. Garbolino

Marks v. Hochhauser, 876 F.3d 416 (2d Cir. 2017)

Wrongful Retention | Single or Continuing Act | Date of Entry into Force

The Second Circuit explored whether the 1980 Hague Convention came into force between the United States and Thailand before the mother in this case wrongfully retained her children. It also dealt with whether wrongful retention is a single act or a continuing one.

Facts

February 13, 2018
James D. Garbolino

Madrigal v. Tellez, 848 F.3d 669 (5th Cir. 2017)

Return Orders | Enforcement | Place of Return

This case involves consideration of motions filed by both parents to modify and vacate the order of return. At the time of the hearing on the motions, the children had been returned to their habitual residence, Mexico.

Facts

February 12, 2018
James D. Garbolino

Padilla v. Troxell, 850 F.3d 168 (4th Cir. 2017)

Defenses | Consent – Facts Supporting Consent

This case involves whether mother consented to the removal of the child from Mexico to the United States. The opinion focuses upon the sufficiency of the facts supporting the defense of consent and the district court’s credibility findings.

Facts

February 12, 2018
James D. Garbolino

Ahmed v. Ahmed, 867 F.3d 682 (6th Cir. 2017)

Habitual Residence | Especially Young Children | Infants

The Sixth Circuit expanded the habitual residence standard to allow consideration of shared parental intent in cases involving especially young children who lack sufficient capacity to acclimate to any residence.

Facts

April 21, 2017
James D. Garbolino

Tann v. Bennett, 648 F. App’x 146 (2d Cir. 2016) (unpublished opinion)

Child’s Objection to Return

This case deals with whether the in camera testimony of a thirteen-year-old boy can sustain the child’s objection to return.

Facts

April 21, 2017
James D. Garbolino

Pliego v. Hayes, 843 F.3d 226 (6th Cir. 2016)

Intolerable Situation | Courts of Habitual Residence

This case addresses whether an “intolerable situation” under Article 13(b) includes the inability of the courts of the habitual residence to litigate child custody.

Facts

April 20, 2017
James D. Garbolino

Martinez v. Cahue, 826 F.3d 983 (7th Cir. 2016)

Habitual Residence | Custody Rights

This case addresses the fundamental principles of habitual residence and discusses the significance of establishing custody rights and habitual residence when only one parent has the legal right to custody of the child.

Facts

April 20, 2017
James D. Garbolino

Hernandez v. Pena, 820 F.3d 782 (5th Cir. 2016)

Delay Defense | Settlement | Immigration Status

This is a case of first impression in the Fifth Circuit, addressing the meaning of the term settled in the context of a delay defense.

Facts

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