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Federal and State Court Cooperation

Reducing Bias References

Calvin Lai et al., Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: I. A Comparative Investigation of 17 Interventions, 143 Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 176585 (2014).

Calvin Lai et al., Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: II. Intervention Effectiveness Across Time, 145 Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1001 (2016).

Commission on Women in the Profession, American Bar Association, You Can’t Change What You Can't See: Interrupting Racial; Gender Bias in the Legal Profession (2018), available at

Heidi A. Vuletich & B. Keith Payne, Stability and Change in Implicit Bias, 30 Psychological Science 854-852 (2019). 

Joshua Correll et al., The Police Officer's Dilemma: A Decade of Research on Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot, 8 Social and Personality Psychology Compass 201-13 (2014).

Jennifer Elek & Paula Hannaford-Agor, Implicit Bias and the American Juror, 51 Court Review (Aug. 2018), available at

Kim A. Case, Intersectional Pedagogy: Complicating Identity and Social Justice (2016).

National Center for State Courts, Blueprint for Racial Justice (2021), available at

National Center for State Courts, Gender and Racial Fairness Resource Guide (2019), available at

Pamela Casey & Steve Leben, Enhancing the DecisionMaking Process: Key Ingredients for Effective Judging, IOTJ Conference (Nov. 4, 2013), available at

Patricia Devine et al., Long-Term Reduction in Implicit Race Bias: A Prejudice Habit-Breaking Intervention, 48 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 126778 (2012).

Patrick Forscher et al., Breaking the Prejudice Habit: Mechanisms, Timecourse, and Longevity, 72 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13346 (2017).

Patrick Forscher et al., A Meta-Analysis of Procedures to Change Implicit Measures, available at (unpublished manuscript).

Project Implicit, available at

As research advances, new resources will become available that examine explicit bias, implicit bias, and the effectiveness of bias reduction programs. If you are aware of any additional resources, please contact Jason A. Cantone at