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About the U.S. Courts: Judicial Independence

Judicial Independence in the United States (PDF)
The provisions in the United States to promote judicial independence on the one hand and to promote democratic control of the judiciary on the other may be arrayed on a continuum. This paper describes the mechanisms employed in the United States to protect and balance independence and accountability.

Judicial Independence Talking Points (FJC History Office)
A link to the FJC website with talking points on (1) Constitutional Origins of the Federal Judiciary; (2) Judicial Independence; and (3) Establishing a Federal Judiciary.

USAID Office of Democracy and Governance: Guidance for Promoting Judicial Independence and Impartiality (PDF)
This guide, from the USAID website, that seeks to promote understanding of the issues surrounding judicial independence and assist USAID and other donors, in collaboration with their local counterparts, to design and implement programs that effectively strengthen judicial independence.

International Documents

Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
Basic principles formulated to assist Member States in their task of securing and promoting the independence of the judiciary to be incorporated and respected within the framework of national legislation and practice. These principles were adopted by the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders and were endorsed by General Assembly in 1985.

Universal Charter of the Judge
Drafted by judges from around the world, and unanimously approved by the Central Council of the International Association of Judges, the Charter outlines the minimal norms and expectations needed for the maintenance of judicial independence.

ICJ Practitioner's Guide
Produced by the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), this Practitioner's Guide offers practical insight on the international principles governing the independence and accountability of judges, lawyers, and prosecutors. It also presents the most relevant and current international standards on the topic.