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Landmark Legislation: Federal Magistrates Act

82 Stat. 1107
October 17, 1968

AN ACT

To abolish the office of United States commissioner, to establish in place thereof within the judicial branch of the Government the office of United States magistrate, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Federal Magistrates Act".

TITLE I-UNITED STATES MAGISTRATES

SEC. 101. Chapter 43, title 28, United States Code, relating to United States commissioners, is amended to read as follows:

"Chapter 43.-UNITED STATES MAGISTRATES

"Sec.

"631. Appointment and tenure .

"632. Character of service.

"633. Determination of number, locations, and salaries of magistrates.

"634. Compensation.

"635. Expenses.

"636. Jurisdiction and powers.

"637. Training.

"638. Dockets and forms; United States Code; seals.

"639. Definitions.

" 631. Appointment and tenure

"(a) The judges of each United States district court shall appoint United States magistrates in such numbers and to serve at such locations within the judicial district as the conference may determine under this chapter. Where there is more than one judge of a district, court, the appointment, whether an original appointment or a reappointment, shall be by the concurrence of a majority of all the judges of such district court, and when there is no such concurrence, then by the chief judge. Where an area under the administration of the National Park Service, or the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, or any other Federal agency, extends into two or more judicial districts and it is deemed desirable by the conference that the territorial jurisdiction of a magistrate's appointment include the entirety of such area, the appointment or reappointment shall he made by the concurrence of a majority of all judges of the district courts of the judicial districts involved, and where there is no such concurrence by the concurrence of the chief judges of such district courts.

"(b) No individual may be appointed or serve as a magistrate under this chapter unless:

"(1) He is a member in good standing of the bar of the highest court of the State in which he is to serve, or, in the case of an individual appointed to serve-

"(A) in the District of Columbia, a member in good standing of the bar of the United States district court for the District of Columbia;

"(B) in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a member in good standing of the bar of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico; or

"(C) in an area under the administration of the National Park Service, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, or any other Federal agency that extends into two or more States, a member in good standing of the bar of the highest court of one of those States;

except that an individual who does not meet the bar membership requirements of the first sentence of this paragraph may be appointed and serve as a part-time magistrate if the appointing court or courts and the conference find that no qualified individual who is a member of the bar is available to serve at a specific location;

"(2) He is determined by the appointing district court or courts to be competent to perform the duties of the office;

"(3) In the case of an individual appointed to serve in a national park, he resides within the exterior boundaries of that park, or at someplace reasonably adjacent thereto;

"(4) He is not related by blood or marriage to a judge of the appointing court or courts at the time of his initial appointment.

"(c) A magistrate may hold no other civil or military office or employment under the United States: Provided, however, That, with the approval of the conference, a part-time referee in bankruptcy or a clerk or deputy clerk of a court of the United States may be appointed and serve as a part-time United States magistrate, but the conference shall fix the aggregate amount of compensation to be received for performing the duties of part-time magistrate and part-time referee bankruptcy, clerk or deputy clerk: And provided further, That retired officers and retired enlisted personnel of the Regular and Reserve components of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, members of the Reserve components of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, and members of the Army National Guard of the United States, the Air National Guard of the United States, and the Naval Militia and of the National Guard of a State or territory, or the District of Columbia, except the National Guard disbursing officers who are on a full-time salary basis, may be appointed and serve as United States magistrates.

"(d) No individual may serve under this chapter after having attained the age of seventy years: Provided, however, That upon the unanimous vote of all the judges of the appointing court or courts, a magistrate who has attained the age of seventy years may continue to serve and may be reappointed under this chapter.

"(e) The appointment of any individual as a full-time magistrate shall be for a term of eight years, and the appointment of any individuals as a part-time magistrate shall be for a term of four years, except that the term of a full-time or part-time magistrate appointed under subsection (j) shall expire upon-

"(1) the expiration of the absent magistrate's term,

"(2) the reinstatement of the absent magistrate in regular service in office as a magistrate,

"(3) the failure of the absent magistrate to make timely application under subsection (i) of this section for reinstatement in regular military service in office as a magistrate after discharge or release from military service,

"(4) the death or resignation of the absent magistrate, or

"(5) the removal from office of the absent magistrate pursuant to subsection (h) of this section,

whichever may first occur.

"(f) Each individual appointed as a magistrate under this section shall take the oath or affirmation prescribed by section 453 of this title before performing the duties of his office.

"(g) Each appointment made by a judge or judges of a district court shall be entered of record in such court, and notice of such appointment shall be given at once by the clerk of that court to the Director.

"(h) Removal of a magistrate during the term for which he is appointed shall be only for incompetency, misconduct, neglect of duty, or physical or mental disability, but a magistrate's office shall be terminated if the conference determines that the services performed by his office are no longer needed. Removal shall be by the judges of the district court for the judicial district in which the magistrate serves; where there is more than one judge of a district court, removal shall not occur unless a majority of all the judges of such court concur in the order of removal; and when there is a tie vote of the judges of the district court on the question of the removal or retention in office of a magistrate, then removal shall be only by a concurrence of a majority of all the judges of the council. In the case of a magistrate appointed under the third sentence of subsection (a) of this section, removal shall not occur unless a majority of all the judges of the appointing district courts concur in the order of removal; and where there is a tie vote on the question of the removal or retention in office of a magistrate, then removal shall be only by a concurrence of a majority of all the judges of the council or councils. Before any order or removal shall be entered, a full specification of the charges shall be furnished to the magistrate, and he shall be accorded by the judge or judges of the removing court, courts, council, or councils an opportunity to be heard on the charges.

"(i) (1) A magistrate who is inducted into the Armed Forces of the United States pursuant to the Military Selective Service Act of 1967 (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.), or is otherwise ordered to active duty with such forces for a period of more than thirty days, and who makes application for a leave of absence to the district court or courts which appointed him, shall be granted a leave of absence without compensation for such period as he is required to serve in such forces. Every application for a leave of absence under this subsection shall include a copy of the official orders requiring the magistrate's military service. The granting of a leave of absence under this subsection shall not operate to extend the term of office of any magistrate.

"(2) A magistrate granted a leave of absence under this subsection who-

"(A) receives a certificate of service under section 9(a) of the Military Selective Service Act of 1967 (50 U.S.C. App. 459(a)), or is released under honorable conditions from the military service,

"(B) makes application for reinstatement to regular service in office as a magistrate within ninety days after he is released from such service or training or from hospitalization continuing after discharge for a period of not more than one year, and

"(C) is determined by the appointing court or courts in the manner specified in subsection (a) of this section to be still qualified to perform the duties of such position,

shall be reinstated in regular service in such office.

"(j) Upon the grant by the appropriate district, court or courts of a leave of absence to a magistrate entitled to such relief under the terms of subsection (i) of this section, such court or courts may proceed to appoint, in the manner specified in subsection (a) of this section, another magistrate, qualified for appointment and service under subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section, who shall serve for the period specified in subsection (e) of this section.

" 632. Character of service

"(a) Full-time United States magistrates may not engage in the practice of law, and may not engage in any other business, occupation, or employment inconsistent with the expeditious, proper, and impartial performance of their duties as judicial officers.

"(b) Part-time United States magistrates shall render such service as judicial officers as is required by law. While so serving they may engage in the practice of law, but may not serve as counsel in any criminal action in any court of the United States, nor act in any capacity that is, under such regulations as the conference may establish, inconsistent with the proper discharge of their office. Within such restrictions, they may engage in any other business, occupation, or employment which is not inconsistent with the expeditious, proper, and impartial performance of their duties as judicial officers.

" 633. Determination of number, locations, and salaries of magistrates

"(a) SURVEYS BY THE DIRECTOR.-

"(1) The Director shall, within one year immediately following the date of the enactment of the Federal Magistrates Act, make a careful survey of conditions in judicial districts to determine (A) the number of appointments of full-time magistrates and part-time magistrates required to be made under this chapter to provide for the expeditious and effective administration of justice, (B) the locations at which such officers shall serve, and (C) their respective salaries under section 634 of this title. Thereafter, the Director shall, from time to time, make such surveys, general or local, as the conference shall deem expedient.

"(2) In the course of any survey, the Director shall take into account local conditions in each judicial district, including the areas and the populations to be served, the transportation and communications facilities available, the amount and distribution of business of the type expected to arise before officers appointed under this chapter (including such matters as may be assigned under section 636(b) of this chapter), and any other material factors. The Director shall give consideration to suggestions from any interested parties, including district judges, United States commissioners or officers appointed under this chapter, United States attorneys, bar associations, and other parties having relevant experience or information.

"(3) The surveys shall be made with a view toward creating and maintaining a system of full-time United States magistrates. However, should the Director find, as a result of any such surveys, areas in which the employment of a full-time magistrate would not be feasible or desirable, he shall recommend the appointment of part-time United States magistrates in such numbers and at such locations as may be required to permit prompt and efficient issuance of process and to permit individuals charged with criminal offenses against the United States to be brought before a judicial officer of the United States promptly after arrest.

"(b) DETERMINATION BY THE CONFERENCE.-Upon the completion of the initial surveys required by subsection (a) of this section, the Director shall report to the district courts, the councils, and the conference his recommendations concerning the number of full-time magistrates and part-time magistrates, their respective locations, and the amount of their respective salaries under section 643 of this title. The district courts shall advise their respective councils, stating their recommendations and the reasons therefor; the councils shall advise the conference, stating their recommendations and the reasons therefor, and shall also report to the conference the recommendations of the district courts. The conference shall determine, in the light of the recommendations of the Director the district courts, and the councils, the number of full-time United States magistrates and part-time United States magistrates, the locations at which they shall serve, and their respective salaries. Such determinations shall take effect in each judicial district at such time as the district court for such judicial district shall determine, but in no event later than one year after they are promulgated.

"(c) CHANGES IN NUMBER, LOCATIONS, AND SALARIES.-Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the conference may, from time to time, in the light of the recommendations of the Director, the district courts, and the councils, change the number, locations, and salaries of full-time and part-time magistrates as the expeditious administration of justice may require. Such determinations shall take effect sixty days after they are promulgated.

" 634. Compensation

"(a) Officers appointed under this chapter shall receive as full compensation for their services salaries to be fixed by the conference pursuant to section 633 of this title, at rates not more than $22,500 per annum for full-time United States magistrates, and not more than $11,000 per annum nor less than $100 per annum for part-time United States magistrates. In fixing the amount of salary to be paid to any officer appointed under this chapter, consideration shall be given to the average number and the nature of matters that have arisen during the immediately preceding period of five years, and that may be expected thereafter to arise, over which such officer would have jurisdiction and to such other factors as may be material. Disbursement of salaries shall be made by or pursuant to the order of the Director.

"(b) Except as provided by section 8344, title 5, relating to reductions of the salaries of reemployed annuitants under subchapter III of chapter 83 of such title and unless the office has been terminated as provided in this chapter, the salary of a full-time United States magistrate shall not be reduced, during the term in which he is serving, below the salary fixed for him at the beginning of that term.

"(c) All United States magistrates effective upon their taking die oath or affirmation of office, and all necessary clerical and secretarial assistants employed in the offices of full-time United Stares magistrates shall be deemed to be officers and employees in the judicial branch of the United States Government within the meaning of subsection III (relating to civil service retirement) of chapter 83, chapter 87 (relating to Federal employees' group life insurance), and chapter 89 (relating to Federal employees' health benefits program) of title

5. Part-time magistrates shall not be excluded from coverage under these chapters solely for lack of a prearranged regular tour of duty.

" 635. Expenses

"(a) Full-time United States magistrates serving under this chapter shall be allowed their actual and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of their duties, including the compensation of necessary clerical and secretarial assistance. Such expenses and compensation shall be determined and paid by the Director under such regulations as the Director shall prescribe with the approval of the conference. The Administrator of General Services shall provide such magistrates with necessary courtrooms, office space, furniture and facilities within United States courthouses or office buildings owned or occupied by departments or agencies of the United States, or should suitable courtroom and office space not be available within any such courthouse or office building, the Administrator of General Services, at the request of the Director, shall procure and pay for suitable courtroom and office space, furniture and facilities for such magistrate in another building, but only if such request hat has been approved as necessary by the judicial council of the appropriate circuit.

"(b) Under such regulations as the Director shall prescribe with the approval of the conference, the Director shall reimburse part-time magistrates for actual expenses necessarily incurred by them in the performance of their duties under this chapter. Such reimbursement may be made, at rates not exceeding those prescribed by such regulations, for expenses incurred by such part-time magistrates for clerical and secretarial assistance, stationery, telephone and other communications services, travel, and such other expenses as may be determined to be necessary for the proper performance of the duties of such officers: Provided, however, That no reimbursement shall be made for all or any portion of the expense incurred by such part-time magistrates for the procurement of office space.

" 636. Jurisdiction and powers

"(a) Each United States magistrate serving under this chapter shall have within the territorial jurisdiction prescribed by his appointment-

"(1) all powers and duties conferred or imposed upon United States commissioners by law or by the Rules of Criminal Procedure for the United States District Courts

"(2) the power to administer oaths and affirmations, impose conditions of release under section 3146 of title 18, and take acknowledgements, affidavits, and depositions; and

"(3) the power to conduct trials under section 3401, title 18, United States Code, in conformity with and subject to the limitations of that section.

"(b) Any district court of the United States, by the concurrence of a majority of all the judges of such district court, may establish rules pursuant to which any full-time United States magistrate, or, where there is no full-time magistrate reasonably available, any part-time magistrate specially designated by the court, may be assigned within the territorial jurisdiction of such court such additional duties as are not inconsistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States. The additional duties authorized by rule may include, but are not restricted to-

"(1) service as a special master in an appropriate civil action, pursuant to the applicable provisions of this title and the Federal Ru1es of Civil Procedure for the United States district courts;

"(2) assistance to a district judge in the conduct of pretrial or discovery proceedings in civil or criminal actions; and

"(3) preliminary review of applications for posttrial relief made by individuals convicted of criminal offenses, and submission of a report and recommendations to facilitate the decision of the district judge having jurisdiction over the case as to whether there should be a hearing.

"(c) The practice and procedure for the trial of cases before officers serving under this chapter, and for the taking and hearing of appeals to the district courts, shall conform to rules promulgated by the Supreme Court pursuant to section 3402 of title 18, United States Code.

"(d) In a proceeding before a magistrate, any of the following acts or conduct shall constitute a contempt of the district court for the district wherein the magistrate is sitting: (1) disobedience or resistance to any lawful order, process or writ; (2) misbehavior at a hearing or other proceeding, or so near the place thereof as to obstruct the same; (3) failure to produce, after having been ordered to do so, any pertinent document; (4) refusing to appear after having been subpenaed or, upon appearing, refusal to take the oath or affirmation as a witness, or, having taken the oath or affirmation, refusal to be examined according to law; or (5) any other act or conduct which if committed before a judge of the district court would constitute contempt of such court. Upon the commission of any such act or conduct, the magistrate shall forthwith certify the facts to a judge of the district court and may serve or cause to be served upon any person whose behavior is brought into question under this section an order requiring such person to appear before a judge of that court upon a day certain to show cause why he should not be adjudged in contempt by reason of the facts so certified. A judge of the district court shall thereupon, in a summary manner, hear the evidence as to the act or conduct complained of and, if it is such as to warrant punishment, punish such person in the same manner and to the same extent as for a contempt committed before a judge of the court, or commit such person upon the conditions applicable in the case of defiance of the process of the district court or misconduct in the presence of a judge of that court.

" 637. Training

"The Federal Judicial Center shall conduct periodic training programs and seminars for both full-time and part-time United States magistrates, including an introductory training program for new magistrates, to be held within one year after initial appointment.

" 638. Dockets and forms; United States Code; seals

"(a) The Director shall furnish to United States magistrates adequate docket books and forms prescribed by the Director. The Director shall also furnish to each such officer a copy of the current edition of the United States Code.

"(b) All property furnished to any such officer shall remain the property of the United States and, upon the termination of his term of office, shall be transmitted to his successor in office or otherwise disposed of as the Director orders.

"(c) The Director shall furnish to each United States magistrate appointed under this chapter an official impression seal in a form prescribed by the conference. Each such officer shall affix his seal to every jurat or certificate of his official acts without fee.

" 639. Definitions "As used in this chapter-

"(1) 'Conference' shall mean the Judicial Conference of the United States;

"(2) 'Council' shall mean the Judicial Council of the Circuit;

"(3) 'Director' shall mean the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts;

"(4) 'Full-time magistrate' shall mean a full-time United States magistrate; and

"(5) 'Part-time magistrate' shall mean a part-time United States magistrate; and

"(6) 'United States magistrate' and 'magistrate' shall mean both full-time and part-time United States magistrates."

SEC. 102. (a) The item relating to United States commissioners contained in the chapter analysis of part III, title 28, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

"43. United States magistrates_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _631."

(b) The item relating to United States commissioners contained in the part and chapter analysis immediately following the title caption of title 28, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

"43. United States magistrates_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _631."

TITLE II-ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES COURTS

SEC. 201. (a) Paragraph (9) of subsection (a) of section 604, title 28, United States Code, is amended by striking out the words "United States Commissioners", and inserting in lieu thereof the words "United States magistrates".

(b) Section 604, title 28, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new subsections:

"(d) The Director, under the supervision and direction of the conference, shall:

"(1) supervise all administrative matters relating to the offices of the United States magistrates;

"(2) gather, compile, and evaluate all statistical and other information required for the performance of his duties and the duties of the conference with respect to such officers;

"(3) lay before Congress annually statistical tables and other information which will accurately reflect the business which has come before the various United States magistrates;

"(4) prepare and distribute a manual, with annual supplements and periodic revisions, for the use of such officers, which shall set forth their powers and duties, describe all categories of proceedings that may arise before them, and contain such other information as may be required to enable them to discharge their powers and duties promptly, effectively, and impartially.

"(e) The Director may promulgate appropriate rules and regulations approved by the conference and not inconsistent with any provision of law, to assist him in the performance of the duties conferred upon him by subsection (d) of this section. Magistrates shall keep such records and make such reports as are specified in such rules and regulations".

TITLE III-AMENDMENTS TO TITLE 18, UNITED STATES CODE

TECHNICAL AMENDMENTS

SEC. 301. (a) Except as otherwise specifically provided by this title, part II, title 18, United States Code (relating to criminal procedure) is amended by:

(1) striking out the words "United States commissioner" wherever they appear therein, and inserting in lieu thereof the words "United States magistrate";

(2) striking out the words "United States commissioners" wherever they appear therein, and inserting in lieu thereof the words "United States magistrates";

(3) striking out the word "commissioner" wherever it appears in relation to a United States Commissioner, and inserting in lieu thereof the word "magistrate";

(4) striking out the word "Commissioners" wherever it appears relation to United States commissioners, and inserting in lieu thereof the word "magistrates".

(b) Section 202(a) of title 18, United States Code, is amended by striking out words "or a part-time United States Commissioner", and inserting in lieu thereof the words "a part-time United States commissioner, or a part-time United States magistrate".

(c) The chapter caption of chapter 219, part II, title 18, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

"Chapter 219.-TRIAL BY UNITED STATES MAGISTRATES"

TRIAL BY MAGISTRATES

SEC. 302. (a) Section 3401, title 18, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

" 3401. Minor offenses; application of probation laws

"(a) When specially designated to exercise such jurisdiction by the district court or courts he serves, and under such conditions as may be imposed by the terms of the special designation, any United States magistrate shall have jurisdiction to try persons accused of, and sentence persons convicted of, minor offenses committed within that judicial district.

"(b) Any person charged with a minor offense may elect, however, to be tried before a judge of the district court of the district in which the offense was committed. The magistrate shall carefully explain to the defendant that he has a right to trial before a judge of the district court and that he may have a right to trial by jury before such judge and shall not proceed to try the case unless the defendant, after such explanation, signs a written consent to be tried before the magistrate that specifically waives both a trial before a judge of the district court and any right to trial by jury that he may have.

"(c) A magistrate who exercises trial jurisdiction under this section, and before whom a person is convicted or pleads either guilty or nolo contendere, may, with the approval of a judge of the district court, direct the probation service of the court to conduct a presentence investigation on that person and render a report to the magistrate prior to the imposition of sentence.

"(d) The probation laws shall be applicable to persons tried by a magistrate under this section, and such officer shall have power to grant probation and to revoke or reinstate the probation of any person granted probation by him.

"(e) Proceedings before United States magistrates under this section shall be taken down by a court reporter or recorded by suitable sound recording equipment. For purposes of appeal a copy of the record of such proceedings shall be made available at the expense of the United States to a person who makes affidavit that he is unable to pay or give security therefor, and the expense of such copy shall be paid by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

"(f) As used in this section, the term 'minor offenses' means misdemeanors punishable under the laws of the United States, the penalty for which does not exceed imprisonment for a period of one year, or a fine of not more than $1,000, or both, except that such term does not include any offense punishable under any of the following provisions of law: Section 102 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (2 U.S.C. 192); section 314(a) of the Federal Corrupt Practices Act, 1925 (2 U.S.C. 252(a)); and sections 210, 211, 242, 594, 597, 599, 600, 601, 1304, 1504, 1508, 1509, 2234, 2235, and 2236 of title 18, United States Code."

(b) Section 3402, title 18, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

" 3402. Rules of procedure; practice and appeal

"In all cases of conviction by a United States magistrate an appeal of right shall lie from the judgment of the magistrate to a judge of the district court of the district in which the offense was committed.

"The Supreme Court shall prescribe rules of procedure and practice for the trial of cases before magistrates and for taking and hearing of appeals to the judges of the district courts of the United States."

(c) The item related to section 3401, title 18, United States Code, contained in the chapter analysis of chapter 219, title 18, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

"3401. Minor offenses; application of probation laws."

SEC. 303. (a) Section 3060, title 18, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

" 3060. Preliminary examination

"(a) Except as otherwise provided by this section, a preliminary examination shall be held within the time set by the judge or magistrate pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, to determine whether there is probable cause to believe that an offense has been committed and that the arrested person has committed it.

"(b) The date for the preliminary examination shall be fixed by the judge or magistrate at the initial appearance of the arrested person. Except as provided by subsection (c) of this section, or unless the arrested person waives the preliminary examination, such examination shall be held within a reasonable time following initial appearance, but in any event not later than-

"(1) the tenth day following the date of the initial appearance of the arrested person before such officer if the arrested person is held in custody without any provision for release, or is held in custody for failure to meet the conditions of release imposed, or is released from custody only during specified hours of the day; or

"(2) the twentieth day following the date of the initial appearance if the arrested person is released from custody under any condition other than a condition described in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

"(c) With the consent of the arrested person, the date fixed by the judge or magistrate for the preliminary examination may be a date later than that prescribed by subsection (b), or may be continued one or more times to a date subsequent to the date initially fixed therefor. In the absence of such consent of the accused, the date fixed for the preliminary hearing may be a date later than that prescribed by subsection (b), or may be continued to a date subsequent to the date initially fixed therefor, only upon the order of a judge of the

appropriate United States district court after a finding that extraordinary circumstances exist, and that the delay of the preliminary hearing is indispensable to the interests of justice.

"(d) Except as provided by subsection (e) of this section, an arrested person who has not been accorded the preliminary examination required by subsection (a) within the period of time fixed by the judge or magistrate in compliance with subsections (b) and (c), shall be discharged from custody or from the requirement of bail or any other condition of release, without prejudice, however, to the institution of further criminal proceedings against him upon the charge upon which he was arrested.

"(e) No preliminary examination in compliance with subsection (a) of this section shall be required to be accorded an arrested person, nor shall such arrested person be discharged from custody or from the requirement of bail or any other condition of release pursuant to subsection (d), if at any time subsequent to the initial appearance of such person before a judge or magistrate and prior to the date fixed for the preliminary examination pursuant to subsections (b) and (c) an indictment is returned or, in appropriate cases, an information is filed against such person in a court of the United States.

"(f) Proceedings before United States magistrates under this section shall be taken down by a court reporter or recorded by suitable sound recording equipment. A copy of the record of such proceeding shall be made available at the expense of the United States to a person who makes affidavit that he is unable to pay or give security therefor, and the expense of such copy shall be paid by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts."

(b) The item relating to section 3060 contained in the section analysis of chapter 203, title 18, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

"3060. Preliminary examination."

TITLE IV-TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

APPOINTMENT OF MAGISTRATES

SEC. 401. (a) No individual may serve as a United States commissioner within any judicial district after the date on which a United States magistrate assumes office in such judicial district.

(b) An individual serving as a United States commissioner within any judicial district on the date of enactment of this Act who is a member in good standing of the bar of the highest court of any State may be appointed to the office of United States magistrate for an initial term, and may be reappointed to such office for successive terms, notwithstanding his failure to meet the bar membership qualification imposed by section 631(b) (1) of chapter 43, title 28, United States Code: Provided, however, That any appointment or reappointment of such an individual must be by unanimous vote of all the judges of the appointing district court or courts.

APPLICABLE LAW

SEC. 402. (a) All provisions of law relating to the powers, duties, jurisdiction, functions, service, compensation, and facilities of United States commissioners, as such provisions existed on the day preceding the date of enactment of this Act, shall continue in effect in each judicial district until but not on or after (1) the date on which the first United States magistrate assumes office within such judicial district pursuant to section 631 of chapter 43, title 28, United States Code, as amended by this Act, or (2) the third anniversary of the date of enactment of this Act, whichever date is earlier.

(b) On and after the date on which the first United States magistrate assumes office within any judicial district pursuant to section 631 of chapter 43, title 28, United States Code, as amended by this Act or the third anniversary of the date of enactment of this Act, whichever date is earlier--

(1) the provisions of chapter 43, title 28, United States Code as amended by this Act, shall be effective within such judicial district except as otherwise specifically provided by section 401 (b) of this title; and

(2) within such judicial district every reference to a United States commissioner contained in any previously enacted statute of the United States (other than sections 8331(1) (E), 8332(i), 8701(a) (7), and 8901(1) (G) of title 5), any previously promulgated rule of any court of the United States, or any previously promulgated regulation of any executive department or agency of the United States, shall be deemed to be a reference to a United States magistrate duly appointed under section 631 of chapter 43, title 28, United States Code, as amended by this Act.

(c) The administrative powers and duties of the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts with respect to United States commissioners under the provisions of chapter 41, title 28, United States Code, as such provisions existed on the day preceding the date of enactment of this Act, shall continue in effect until no United States commissioner remains in service.

EFFECTIVE DATE

SEC. 403. Except as otherwise provided by sections 401 and 402 of this title, this Act shall take effect on the date of its enactment.

TITLE V-SEVERABILITY

SEC. 501. If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act and of its application to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected.

Approved October 17, 1968.