History of the Federal Judiciary


History of the Federal Judiciary


  Chew Heong v. United States: Chinese Exclusion and the Federal Courts
Learn about the case — historical background and documents

Historical Documents

Government documents

      
Angell Treaty of 1880
      
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
      
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1884
      
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1888
      
Habeas corpus petition of Chew Heong
      
Laborer’s return certificate: Chae Chan Ping
      
Collector of customs’ investigation of Chinese immigrants
      
Opinion of Justice Stephen J. Field in the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of California, In re Cheen Hong
      
Dissenting opinion of Judge Lorenzo Sawyer, In re Cheen Hong
      
Opinion of Justice John Marshall Harlan in the Supreme Court of the United States (excerpt), Chew Heong v. United States
      
Dissenting opinion of Justice Stephen J. Field in the Supreme Court of the United States (Excerpt), Chew Heong v. United States

Political cartoons from The Wasp

      
“Judge Righteous Judgment”
      
“There’s Millions in It”
      
“The Restriction Act Knocked Out”

Newpapers and public opinion

      
“The Evasion Act”
      
“Chinamen Without Certificates Must Stay Away”
      
“Mr. Justice Field on the Restriction Act”

Federal officials on Chinese immigration and litigation

      
Judge Lorenzo Sawyer on the Supreme Court’s decision in Chew Heong
      
Judge Lorenzo Sawyer on the “Chinese question,” ca. 1890
      
Judge Ogden Hoffman’s appeal to Congress for relief from Chinese litigation, 1888
      
A U.S. Attorney on enforcement of the Chinese exclusion laws, 1888

Chinese perspectives on exclusion

      
Poem by Chinese immigrant detained at Angel Island
      
“The Chinese Must Stay,” by Yan Phou Lee

 

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